Aplikasi Bawang Merah dan Bawang Putih Memperlambat Pembentukan Bintik Hitam pada Udang Vaname

Tatty Yuniarti - ORCID ORCID
Iin Siti Djunaidah ORCID
Lilis Supenti
Suharyadi Suharyadi

Abstract

Bawang mengandung senyawa bioaktif, seperti organosulfur, komponen fenolik, dan flavonoid yang mempunyai kemampuan antioksidan. Udang pada saat keluar dari air, mengalami reaksi oksidasi enzimatik, asam amino tirosin yang mengandung gugus fenol dioksidasi oleh enzim polifenol oksidase, mengakibatkan pembentukan bintik hitam atau blackspot pada tubuh udang. Pembentukan blackspot tersebut dapat menurunkan nilai ekonomi, sehingga merugikan perusahaan udang segar. Penelitian bertujuan meneliti bawang merah (Allium cepa L.) dan bawang putih (Allium sativum) yang diekstraksi menggunakan air terhadap pembentukan blackspot pada udang vaname (Litopeneaus vannameii). Udang direndam menggunakan larutan ekstrak bawang merah dan bawang putih (1:1 dan 1:2), disimpan selama 10 hari pada suhu 0 oC. Udang tanpa ekstrak bawang dan udang dengan sodium metabisulfit (SMS) digunakan sebagai kontrol negatif dan kontrol positif. Nilai melanosis udang dengan perendaman ekstrak bawang merah perbandingan 1:1 pada penyimpanan hari ke-10, lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ekstrak bawang lainnya, sehingga memperlambat pembentukan blackspot namun masih lebih efektif bila menggunakan SMS. Pengaruh ekstrak bawang terhadap kesegaran udang diamati pada atribut kenampakan, secara umum mengalami kemunduran mutu paling cepat dibandingkan atribut bau dan tekstur. Penambahan ekstrak bawang merah dan bawang putih tidak menimbulkan perubahan mutu atribut tekstur dan bau yang siginifikan dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Nilai indeks browning menunjukkan udang dengan perendaman bawang merah 1:1 mengalami perubahan yang paling lambat dibandingkan lainnya. Ekstrak air bawang merah : akuades dengan perbandingan 1:1 berpotensi digunakan sebagai bahan penghambat pembentukan blackspot udang vaname, tanpa memberikan pengaruh terhadap bau dan tekstur udang.

Keywords

bawang; blackspot; browning; melanosis; udang vaname

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ashari U, Sahara, Hartoyo S. 2016. Daya Saing Udang Segar Dan Udang Beku Indonesia. J. Manaj. Agribisnis, 13(1):1–13. doi:10.17358/JMA.13.1.1.

Barbagallo RN, Riggi E, Avola G, Patanè C. 2012. Biopreservation of “Birgah” Eggplant from Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Assayed In Vitro with Onion ( Allium cepa L .) by-products. Chem. Eng. Trans. 27(1984):1–6.

Chun HN, Kim B, Shin HS. 2014. Evaluation of a freshness indicator for quality of fish products during storage. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 23(5):1719–1725. doi:10.1007/s10068-014-0235-9.

Edmonds M. 2006. Sodium Metabisulphite Alternatives. In Seafish Technology Implementation, Seafish. pp. 1–51.

El-hanafy AEALY, Shawky HA, Ramadan MF. 2011. Preservation Of Oreochromis Niloticus Fish Using Frozen Green Tea Extract : Impact On Biochemical. J of Food Proc and Preserv doi:10.1111/j.1745- 4549.2011.00513.x.

Fang X, Sun H, Huang B, Yuan G. 2013. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on the melanosis of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) during iced storage. J. Food, Agric. Environ. Vol.11 11(1):105–109.

Fossati AAN, Bergmann GP, Oliveira LA, Ribeiro, Junior DPS, Schneider TMC, Kindlein L. 2016. Effects of Different Additives on Colorimetry and Melanosis Prevention of Atlantic Seabob Shrimp (Xyphopenaeus kroyeri) Stored under Refrigeration. Int. J. Fish. Aquac. 8(8):74–80. doi:10.5897/IJFA2016.0564.

Haghparast S, Kashiri H, Alipour G, Shabanpour B. 2011. Evaluation of Green Tea ( Camellia sinenses ) Extract and Onion ( Allium cepa L .) Juice Effects on Lipid Degradation and Sensory Acceptance of Persian Sturgeon ( Acipenser persicus ) Fillets : A Comparative Study. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 13855–868.

Javdani Z, Ghasemnezhad M, Zare S. 2013. A comparison of heat treatment and ascorbic acid on controlling enzymatic browning of fresh-cuts apple fruit. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci. 5(3):186–193.

Kartikasari L, Nurhayati APD, Setiawan E, Hidayati D, Ashuri NM, Saadah NN, Muzaki FK, Desmawati I. 2017. Bioaktivitas ekstrak batang Xylocarpus granatum sebagai anti black spot alternatif pada Litopenaeus vannamei pasca panen. J. Trop. Biodivers. Biotechnol. 2(1):16. doi:10.22146/jtbb.16385.

Kim HR. 2000. Enzymatic Properties of Protease from the Hepatopancreas of Shrimp, Penaeus japonicus. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Kim J, Marshall M, Wei C. 2002. Polyphenoloxydase. In Seafood Enzymes: Utilization Dan Influence on Postharvest Seafood Quality, N. Haard (Ed. by), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 271–315.

Kusumaningrum HD, Yanuardi A. 2012. Kuantifikasi Reduksi Salmonella Typhimurium pada Udang Segar selama Penyimpanan Dingin dengan Penambahan Natrium Metabisulfit ]. JTIP. 23 (2):193–198. doi:10.6066/jtip.2012.23.2.193.Hasil.

Lougovois V, Kyrana V. 2005. Freshness Quality And Spoilage Of Chill-Stored Fish. Nova Science Publisher.

Mohamed GA. 2013. Alliuocide A: A New Antioxidant Flavonoid from Allium cepa L. Phytopharmacology 4(2):220– 227.

Montero P, Lopez-Caballero M, Perez- Mateos M. 2011. The Effect of Inhibitors and High Pressure Treatment to Prevent Melanosis and Microbial Growth on Chilled Prawns (Penaeus japonicus). J. Food Sci. 661201–1206.

Nguyen HX, Nguyen NT, Ha M, Nguyen K, Le TH, Do TN Van. 2016. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllous. Chem. Cent. J. 4–9. doi:10.1186/s13065-016- 0150-7.

Nirmal NP, Benjakul S. 2011. Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead ( Leucaena leucocephala ) seed. Food Chem. 128(2):427–432. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.048.

Nirmal NP, Benjakul S, Ahmad M, Arfat YA, Panichayupakaranant P. 2015. Undesirable Enzymatic Browning in Crustaceans: Causative Effects and Its Inhibition by Phenolic Compounds. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 55(14):1992–2003. doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.755148.

Palou E, Welti-chanes J, Palou E, Swanson BG. 1999. Polyphenoloxidase Activity and Color of Blanched and High Hydrostatic Pressure Treated Banana Puree Polyphenoloxidase Activity and Color of Blanched and High Hydrostatic. J. Food Sci. • 64(1):42– 45. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1999.tb09857.x.

Pardio VT, Waliszewski KN, Zun P. 2011. Original article Biochemical , microbiological and sensory changes in shrimp ( Panaeus aztecus ) dipped in different solutions using face-centred central composite design. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 46305–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02474 .x.

Rahimabadi Z, Zarrin K, Zarei M, Gaffari M, Rahnama M. 2016. Effects of genistein on melanosis and microbial quality of Litopenaeus vannamei during ice storage. 15(1):436–445.

Roldan E, de Ancos B, Sancez-Moreno C, Cano MP. 2008. Characterisation of Onion (Allium cepa L .) by-products as Food Ingredients with Antioxidant and Antibrowning Properties. Food Chem. 108907–916. doi:10.1016/ j.foodchem.2007.11.058.

Sriket P, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Kijroongrojana K. 2007. Comparativestudies on the effect of the freeze thawing process on the physicochemical properties and microstructures of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) muscle. Food Chem. 104113–121. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.0 39.

Sun H, Lv H, Yuan G, Fang X. 2014. Effect of Grape Seed Extracts on the Melanosis and Quality of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during Iced Storage. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 20(3):671–677. doi:10.3136/fstr.20.671.

Thanonkaew A, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Decker EA. 2007. Yellow discoloration of the liposome system of cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis ) as influenced by lipid oxidation. Food Chem. 102219–224. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem. 2006.05.008.

Trifunschi S, Munteanu MF, Agotici V, Pintea S, Gligor R. 2015. Determination of Flavonoid and Polyphenol Compounds in Viscum album and Allium sativum Extracts. Int. Curr. Pharm. J. 4(5):382–385.doi:10.3329/icpj.v4i5.22861.

Tsironi T, Dermesonlouoglou E, Giannakourou M, Taoukis P. 2009. Shelf life modelling of frozen shrimp at variable temperature conditions. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 42(2):664–671. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2008.07.010.

Uran H, Yilmaz I. 2015. Determination of the total sodium metabisulphide level of shrimps ( Parapenaeus longirostris ) sold in Tekirdag. J. Environ. Res. Prot. Determ. 12(3):79–83.

Vavricka CJ, Christensen BM, Li J. 2010. Melanization in living organisms: A perspective of species evolution. Protein Cell 1(9):830–841. doi:10.1007/s13238-010-0109-8.

Yapi JC, Gnangui SN, Dabonné S. 2015. Inhibitory Effect of Onions and Garlic Extract on the Enzymatic Browning of an Edible Yam ( Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata cv . Kponan ) cultivated in Côte d Ivoire. Int. J. Curr. Res. Acad. 3(1):219–231.

Yatmaz HA, Gokoglu N. 2016. Effects of Plant Extract-Sulphide Combinations on Melanosis Inhibition and Quality in Shrimp (Aristeus Antennatus). Int. J. Food Prop. 19(2):359–370. doi:10.1080/10942912.2015.1031247.

Yen C. 2014. Microbiological , physical and sensory quality of marine shrimp ( Peneaus spp .) sold by vendors in Trinidad , West Indies. 21(4):1279– 1288.

Yerlikaya P, Gökoglu N. 2010. Effect of previous plant extract treatment on sensory and physical properties of frozen bonito ( Sarda sarda ) filllets. Turkish J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 10341– 349. doi:10.4194/trjfas.2010.0306.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.